The cape of Chek Jawa is found at the eastern periphery of “Pulau Ubin” in the coast of Singapore. The cape covers approximately one square kilometer by stretch in the north-eastern cost of Singapore. It has a ground cover that is rich in natural biodiversity suitable for tourism activities and ecological sustainability. The cape addresses its originality to the former fishing village courtesy of a reclamation program that saw a massive creation of a natural habitat for wildlife. These programs for reclamation were possible through collaborations with naturalists who proved to be sympathizers of the natural biodiversity. At the end, came the cape of Chek Jawa that is prevailed by legislative preservation (Schwanke, 1997). A possible research into the historical expanse of the cape of Chek Jawa could lead to the definition of its social, biological and physical indicators that could result in exploration of visitor management issues, either direct or indirect, that could also lead to the recommendation of sound management practices, geared towards sustainability, which forms the essence of this paper.
Review of Physical Indicators
The soil bulky density, covering the cape of Chek Jawa in Singapore, is a cacophony of double sided sand bars, which cover the entire expanse of land. The area is vastly rich on the dense soil cover, which ensures prevalence of both fauna and floral ecosystems. The soils are compact due to the humus content that results from the shedding of leaves of the mangrove forests during the high tide seasons. The compaction of soil results from organic activities that are flourished by the existing humid conditions (Baker, 2000). The soils, covering the vast expanse of land, are acidic with low PH values, due to the presence of microbial activities. Moreover, the weather conditions depicted from acidic rains culminate in the acidity of the soils, which show low potential of hydrogen levels. The general values of soil PH in Chek Jawa ranges from 2-4, which proves the acidity in the soils. On the other hand, the amount of litter and duff is high due to the presence of mangrove forest covers that shed leaves at high tides. The high tides result into the consequent blow of the offshore winds that are realized in the lodging of the mangrove forests, necessitating the increased litter and duff content.
The initiative program from the well wishers to reclaim the Chek Jawa cape in the early 1990s provided room for the sufficient flourishing of the fauna and floral aspects in the area. This led to the increase of the area of complete campsite. The cape is massive one kilometer square expanse of campsite that is growing at a higher rate courtesy of conservationists. The hills overlooking Chek Jawa are evidently the expanse that forms area in size of the fire rings, although sound conservation has reduced this vulnerable area due to proactive measures, aimed at conservation. The overlooking hills are also the possible strains, vulnerable to the forms of erosion, since the steep contributes to the rates of flow of rain water that carries soils with it. The overlooking hills are also vulnerable to the agents of erosion, since they form a valuable habitat for animals that consume the vegetation cover, leaving the ground bare for the agents of erosion to take course.
The soil drainage is poor in the sense that there are few water channels. This has led to the existence of the wetlands that are poorly drained, while the soil chemistry in Chek Jawa is defined by the soils, rich in mineral elements that result from the decomposition of organic matter, activated by the presence of mangrove forests. The mangrove forests contribute to the process of rhizosphere priming that coordinated fixation of the mineral elements in the soil. The soils are highly productive due to the high humus content, while the depth of litter and duff is low. This is because of the resultant effects of rhizosphere priming effects that lead to the change in the soil contents and consequent increase in the litter and duff depicted by coverage to deep zones of the Earth’s surface. The area of bear ground is approximately one quarter of the whole expanse of Chek Jawa, where the rock mountains form the course of the day. The total number of fire rings is four, including the overlooking hills that are vulnerable to the dangers of fire, while the number of social trails varies depending on the prevalent weather conditions. At high tides the number increases, where the converse is also true.
Review of Biological Indicators
The weather conditions, depicted by a cool and wet climate in Chek Jawa, ensure a rich diversity of fauna due to the prevalence of food for growth. The humid conditions, on the other hand, ensure the prevalence of the micro flora, due to its viability in germination of spores. The percent loss of ground cover is low in times of low tides, while it might increase to 20% in the adverse times of high tides (Huffadine, 2000). This is due to the facilitation of processes like erosion and the tumble under feet by animals that they try to reach for higher grounds. Chek Jawa is diverse in plant species. It is here that different plant species like the sea grass covers a vast area of land, while the mangrove ecosystem provides room for view of different species of flora. The number of tree seedlings in the area is approximately two per square feet for the macro plants, while it reaches hundreds of seedlings per square feet for the micro-fauna. This is due to the prevalence of the cool and wet climatic conditions that the plant growth is quick. This, by consideration, is a dense population in comparison to the required norms of forest cover.
The wildlife production success is marked by high prolificacy, where abundance of growth conditions accelerates the success of reproduction. Moreover, the sound management systems within the cape ensure successful reproduction due to close monitoring by the sympathizers of wildlife. This has increased the abundance of selected wildlife species and their consequent sightings with the evident free movement of masses of wild bears and the tigers on the Terembu Semakau. On the other hand, the sea anemone can be found at the sea shores, lazily swimming in a colony. These sightings are frequent to a level that one never longs for a different sight.
The ground cover density in Chek Jawa is approximately 75%, where a vast expanse of mangrove vegetation blankets the ground with the floral aesthetic value. The plant species composition is, on average, a mixture of both the narrow and broad leaved plants that result from natural pollination processes. The proportion of the exotic plat species is lower than the indigenous plant species. This has been largely attributed to the conservation programs that have aided in the increased number of the man-made forests. The conventional practice of utilization of the cape resulted in the extinction of viable exotic species; while the few endangered species left include the sea grass that is nearly extinct due to the changes in the maritime conditions that result from the rains that are not salty. This has resulted in increased osmotic changes that affect prevalence of exotic species (Rutes et al., 2001)
The ability of coverage of certain species like the sea grass monitored at a stipulated period shows a high vigor of growth and consequent coverage. This demonstrates that the selected plant vigor is high due to the fertility of the soils, depicted by high humus content. The cape covered in the mangrove forests bear a cacophony of plants with buttressed roots that provide support to the plant, resulting in resistance to the process of lodging of the plants. This is also a contributory factor to the survival of the endangered species like the sea Urchin.
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Review of Social Impacts
The cape is evidently a fauna and flora supported expanse of land, where plants grow and animals meet. The wild boars form the scenic sight for view by the incomers, thus increasing the rate of encounter of each of the other individuals in a single day. The modes of transport ranges from bicycles to motor vehicles plying on the routes like the “old upper Thompson road”. This gives the crew on the modes of transport a glimpse into the wild boar yard.The number of such modes of transport varies with natural conditions, depicted by either low or high tide. Whenever there is the low ide, such modes of transport are higher due to the vitality in locomotion. This shows that more tourist visits are at low tides with consequent increase in animal movement.
Consequently, the increased tour activity, necessitated by the low tide, influences the frequency of encounters between different groups. This reduces at the high tide when there is a low movement of animals. Moreover, the high tide is signified by the lower tourist attractions. This also affects the number of encounters depending on their location. This is the number of movements per stipulated area within the cape. The mainland is densely populated when overlooking rocky shore. This is also seen in the tributary that separates the sandbars that has varied encounters with crabs and sand dollars.
The services rendered in the cape include visitor transportation to the designated sites, while the platform of the routes form a supportive environment for exercise especially the “old lower Thompson road”. Coupling this with a staff defined with courtesy the visitors’ satisfaction is maintained. The sites for suggestions, comments and compliments give room for description of errand behavior, where contravention with the rules is reported. For instance, a signpost at the entry of the wild boar yard gives signs of warning against feeding animals. The evident misbehavior is characterized by feeding of the animals where the later turn their sympathizers into prey. The rule of thumb is that contravention of the law restricting the act of feeding of animals is the most broken in the cape (Morton, 1996).
The cacophony of activities, including tourism, conservation through tree planting, exercise and research, defines the rate of activity at the cape. This rate influences the nature of activity type. This one is more profound in the low tide, while it is lowered in the high tide. The sizes also vary with the climatic conditions, when the rate is dependable on the habitability of the sites. The fishing villages of “Pulau Ubin” have higher sizes of meeting groups, while the rocky hills have scattered formations of crowds resulting from poor accessibility. The forms of crowding are evident as a result of activities surrounding the scenes (Morton, 1996). At places of varied tourism activity like the corral rubble that is sterile in terms of floral coverage but rich in vast diversity of the octopi and flowery flatworms there are high visitor activity in terms of tourism. These tourism activities are correlated with the human environment to ensure sustainability within the cape. The rules for handling animals are clear and elaborated like the sign posts that refute any efforts, vested towards feeding the animals. This has reduced incidences of human-animal conflict that forms the causes for complaints. However, the recent report of compliant was that of a visitor who broke her hip, while trying to struggle out with a wild boar reaching out for her food. This incident elucidated varied reactions over the legality of complaints suffered as a consequence of self negligence. Such cases and complaints are low, where the conservation management relays the mandate of guidance of visitors to reduce vulnerability.
Overly, the amount of litter in the Chek Jawa in Singapore is more natural than manmade. Most of the loose surface compounds are made up of tree leaves due to the ecological conditions of the place. The dumpsites offer an automated system for control of trash cover, which has led to reduced incidences of contact with litter. The dumpsites do not form a large area of coverage with the consequently reduced area of litter due to the recycling programs. For instance, the domestic litter is recycled into organic fertilizers, used for planting of trees as a rehabilitation program for the cape set in the early 2000s.
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Classification of Visitor Management Strategies
The cape needs a form of improvement in the access routes and campsites to give room for free movement of human beings, so that there is minimal human-animal conflict. This would help in the sound management of the coexistence between the animals and human being. Consequently, ratification of communication channels and the indirect visitor management strategy calls for advertisement of area attribute to give a preview to the expectations that lead to elucidation of anxiety in the visitors. This is also viable in identification of the surrounding opportunities as the view gives the most expected result. Moreover, the informative systems are vital for the identification of potentiality since prior knowledge inflicts need further research of its potentiality. For instance, the rich diversity of the low tidal Chek Jawa has resulted in research of the impact of low tides on tourism. This diversity was reached out through comprehensive advertisement (Green & Short, 2003).
The economic constraints put emphasis on the preference to the charge of rates that are constant that is in correlation with a standardization of the charging system, fundamental in customization of the visitors. The standardization program for constant charging of fees is also influential in the description of the ability of the potential visitor within the cape. Conversely, the charge by the differential fees does not conform to consumer satisfaction due to its predictability. The mandate of higher management within the cape should establish the cost comparable to the profitability as the determinant factor for sustainability.
Direct Visitor Management Strategies
The forces for enacting the rules and regulations within the cape are entitled to enforcement of a law that could see increased surveillance to improve the security. This is through the increase of patrol guides within the cape and security guards to reduce incidences of human-animal conflict. Moreover, the consequences of such contraventions should be punished through imposition of fines that could be a form of enacting responsibility in the human race. The fines could then be used for reassurance of normal state, especially in the incidences of server injury of fauna and flora (Johnson, 1997).This is in realization of the goal of sustainability as it reduces extinction of endangered species within the cape.
The aspect of creation of barriers to accessibility except on special locations is fundamental for the reduction of the stress for the wildlife that forms the factor, underpinning flourishing of the natural habitat. This could be done by separation of visitors on the basis of the level of experience, where an expertise handling an animal would also reduce the cases of injury caused to animals. This is important for the ensuring that only compatible animals come in contact, since this reduces prey to predator associations. For instance, separation of carnivores and herbivores reduces the chances of prey by the carnivores.
The restrictions are also contributory to overutilization, since they help check the levels of utilization and give recommendations about how to change practice whenever there are cases of overutilization. This could be achieved through limiting the access points and rotational use. These modes of use ensure that the subsequent accessibility would correlate to a form of improvement in the resource stipulations. The restricting activities could also be fundamental in achieving sustainability through stipulating the type of resource to be utilized at a given time. This helps in prescribing preventive measures to the most endangered species. The group and size of the users could also be restricted to aid in essential management of limited resources. The size could be controlled through restricting camping practices that are influential in increasing the time for stay and use of facilities at the cape. Overly, there should be communicative and informative resources, depicting the need for conservation of the resources by the users, so that there is maximization in use without depletion (Loo et al., 1996).
Methodology for Implementation of Sustainability within the Cape
Using the expertise in visitor management skills, this project reveals a proactive measurer that could see sustainability as a virtue of practice in the Chek Jawa cape. The higher management should firstly purchase computer systems and install software programs, enabling to observe the trends within the camp. The management should then make deliberate steps in the establishment of the training sessions for its employees about the use of computer software programs that would be fundamental in the management of the activities of the cape under software interface. This would increase the efficiency of service delivery and also is believed to be influential for the modernization of the camp for faster services as opposed to the conventional manual practices.